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Prometheus学习(十一)之Prometheus+Grafana部署说明

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11月 28, 2021

0.说明

在前面的Prometheus学习系列文章里,大致介绍说明了Prometheus和Grafana的一些使用,现在开始介绍如何从头开始部署Prometheus+Grafana,来监控各个相关的指标数据来进行展示。

1.部署

Prometheus基于Golang编写(需要安装),编译后的软件包,不依赖于任何的第三方依赖。用户只需要下载对应平台的二进制包,解压并且添加基本的配置即可正常启动Prometheus Server。

1.1部署流程

1.1.1环境
系统:
centos-release-7-4.1708.el7.centos.x86_64
IP:10.47.97.47

Prometheus:
prometheus-2.14.0

Grafana:
grafana-6.5.1-1
1.1.2下载
1: Prometheus
wget https://github.com/prometheus/prometheus/releases/download/v2.14.0/prometheus-2.14.0.linux-amd64.tar.gz

2: Grafana:
wget https://dl.grafana.com/oss/release/grafana-6.5.1-1.x86_64.rpm
1.1.3安装Prometheus
  • 添加用户prometheus:
useradd --no-create-home --shell /bin/false prometheus
  • 创建相关目录:
mkdir /etc/prometheus
mkdir /var/lib/prometheus
  • 改目录权限:
chown prometheus:prometheus /etc/prometheus
chown prometheus:prometheus /var/lib/prometheus
  • 解压 & 移动到相应目录:
tar xvf prometheus-2.14.0.linux-amd64.tar.gz 

cp prometheus-2.14.0.linux-amd64/prometheus /usr/local/bin/
cp prometheus-2.14.0.linux-amd64/promtool /usr/local/bin/

cp -r prometheus-2.14.0.linux-amd64/consoles/ /etc/prometheus/
cp -r prometheus-2.14.0.linux-amd64/console_libraries/ /etc/prometheus/
cp prometheus-2.14.0.linux-amd64/prometheus.yml /etc/prometheus/

chown prometheus:prometheus /usr/local/bin/prometheus
chown prometheus:prometheus /usr/local/bin/promtool

chown -R prometheus:prometheus /etc/prometheus/consoles
chown -R prometheus:prometheus /etc/prometheus/console_libraries
chown -R prometheus:prometheus /etc/prometheus/prometheus.yml 
  • 配置Prometheus service,端口为9099:
vim /etc/systemd/system/prometheus.service

[Unit]
Description=Prometheus
Wants=network-online.target
After=network-online.target

[Service]
User=prometheus
Group=prometheus
Type=simple
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/prometheus 
    --config.file /etc/prometheus/prometheus.yml 
    --storage.tsdb.path /var/lib/prometheus/ 
    --web.console.templates=/etc/prometheus/consoles 
    --web.console.libraries=/etc/prometheus/console_libraries 
    --web.listen-address=:9099

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
  • 加载systemd服务 & 启动:
# 加载 
systemctl daemon-reload
# 开机启动
systemctl enable prometheus.service
# 启动
systemctl start prometheus
# 查看状态
systemctl status prometheus
  • 查看状态:
systemctl status prometheus
● prometheus.service - Prometheus
   Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/prometheus.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since Mon 2019-12-09 18:35:00 CST; 1min 8s ago
 Main PID: 18875 (prometheus)
   CGroup: /system.slice/prometheus.service
           └─18875 /usr/local/bin/prometheus --config.file /etc/prometheus/prometheus.yml --storage.tsdb.path /var/lib/prometheus/ --web.console.templates=/etc/prometheus/consoles --web.console.librari...

Dec 09 18:35:00 test26-mysql03 prometheus[18875]: level=info ts=2019-12-09T10:35:00.175Z caller=head.go:583 component=tsdb msg="WAL segment loaded" segment=4 maxSegment=8
Dec 09 18:35:00 test26-mysql03 prometheus[18875]: level=info ts=2019-12-09T10:35:00.175Z caller=head.go:583 component=tsdb msg="WAL segment loaded" segment=5 maxSegment=8
Dec 09 18:35:00 test26-mysql03 prometheus[18875]: level=info ts=2019-12-09T10:35:00.176Z caller=head.go:583 component=tsdb msg="WAL segment loaded" segment=6 maxSegment=8
Dec 09 18:35:00 test26-mysql03 prometheus[18875]: level=info ts=2019-12-09T10:35:00.178Z caller=head.go:583 component=tsdb msg="WAL segment loaded" segment=7 maxSegment=8
Dec 09 18:35:00 test26-mysql03 prometheus[18875]: level=info ts=2019-12-09T10:35:00.178Z caller=head.go:583 component=tsdb msg="WAL segment loaded" segment=8 maxSegment=8
Dec 09 18:35:00 test26-mysql03 prometheus[18875]: level=info ts=2019-12-09T10:35:00.180Z caller=main.go:672 fs_type=EXT4_SUPER_MAGIC
Dec 09 18:35:00 test26-mysql03 prometheus[18875]: level=info ts=2019-12-09T10:35:00.180Z caller=main.go:673 msg="TSDB started"
Dec 09 18:35:00 test26-mysql03 prometheus[18875]: level=info ts=2019-12-09T10:35:00.180Z caller=main.go:743 msg="Loading configuration file" filename=/etc/prometheus/prometheus.yml
Dec 09 18:35:00 test26-mysql03 prometheus[18875]: level=info ts=2019-12-09T10:35:00.182Z caller=main.go:771 msg="Completed loading of configuration file" filename=/etc/prometheus/prometheus.yml
Dec 09 18:35:00 test26-mysql03 prometheus[18875]: level=info ts=2019-12-09T10:35:00.182Z caller=main.go:626 msg="Server is ready to receive web requests."
  • 命令行启动:
sudo -u prometheus /usr/local/bin/prometheus --config.file /etc/prometheus/prometheus.yml --storage.tsdb.path /var/lib/prometheus/ --web.console.templates=/etc/prometheus/consoles --web.console.libraries=/etc/prometheus/console_libraries --web.listen-address=:9099
  • 访问URL: http://10.47.97.47:9099/graph

  • 配置文件:

# my global config
global:
  scrape_interval:     15s # Set the scrape interval to every 15 seconds. Default is every 1 minute.
  evaluation_interval: 15s # Evaluate rules every 15 seconds. The default is every 1 minute.
  # scrape_timeout is set to the global default (10s).

# Alertmanager configuration
alerting:
  alertmanagers:
  - static_configs:
    - targets:
      # - alertmanager:9093

# Load rules once and periodically evaluate them according to the global 'evaluation_interval'.
rule_files:
  # - "first_rules.yml"
  # - "second_rules.yml"

# A scrape configuration containing exactly one endpoint to scrape:
# Here it's Prometheus itself.
scrape_configs:
  # The job name is added as a label `job=<job_name>` to any timeseries scraped from this config.
  - job_name: 'prometheus'

    # metrics_path defaults to '/metrics'
    # scheme defaults to 'http'.

    static_configs:
    - targets: ['localhost:9099']


  - job_name: 'node_exporter'
    scrape_interval: 1s
    static_configs:
    - targets: ['a:9199','b:9199','c:9199','d:9199']
    relabel_configs:
    - action: replace
      source_labels: ['__address__']  # 源标签
      regex: (.*):(.*)             # 正则,会匹配到__address__值
      replacement: $1       # 引用正则匹配到的内容
      target_label: HOSTNAME    # 赋予新的标签,名为HOSTNAME

之后可以访问到Prometheus的Web界面。到此Prometheus的安装结束。更多的参数可以看Prometheus学习(二)之Prometheus FIRST STEPS和Prometheus学习(四)之Prometheus配置说明

1.1.4安装Grafana
  • 下载完rpm包之后,直接执行:
sudo yum localinstall grafana-6.5.1-1.x86_64.rpm

安装完之后进行Grafana配置的修改:修改端口vim /etc/grafana/grafana.ini,关于配置说明请见: 官方文档、Grafana配置和Grafana 配置文件详解

  • 修改开启端口:
http_port = 3333
  • 加载systemd服务 & 启动:
直接启动
$ sudo service grafana-server start

#配置为在引导时启动
$ sudo /sbin/chkconfig --add grafana-server

#加载
$ systemctl daemon-reload

#开启
$ systemctl start grafana-server

#查看状态
$ systemctl status grafana-server

#开启启动
sudo systemctl enable grafana-server.service
  • 日志&数据目录
日志目录:配置为在引导时启动
数据目录:/var/lib/grafana/grafana.db
  • 访问URL: http://10.47.97.47:3333

Prometheus和Grafana安装完毕,现在开始安装Exporter来采集数据。

Exporter是Prometheus的一类数据采集组件的总称。它负责从目标处搜集数据,并将其转化为Prometheus支持的格式。与传统的数据采集组件不同的是,它并不向中央服务器发送数据,而是等待中央服务器主动前来抓取,默认的抓取地址为http://CURRENT_IP:9199/metrics。

1.2Exporter 安装

exporter官网地址

1.2.1node_exporter安装

node_exporter的作用是用于机器系统数据收集,监控服务器CPU、内存、磁盘、I/O、网络等等信息。

  • 下载:
wget https://github.com/prometheus/node_exporter/releases/download/v0.18.1/node_exporter-0.18.1.linux-amd64.tar.gz
  • 安装:
#解压
tar xvf node_exporter-0.18.1.linux-amd64.tar.gz
cp node_exporter /usr/sbin/

#帮助
node_exporter --help

#开启,端口:9199
node_exporter --web.listen-address=:9199
  • 加载systemd服务 & 启动:
vim /etc/systemd/system/node_exporter.service
[Unit]
Description=node_exporter
Documentation=https://prometheus.io/
After=network.target
[Service]
Type=simple
User=prometheus
ExecStart=/usr/sbin/node_exporter --web.listen-address=:9199
Restart=on-failure
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
  • systemctl 启动:
#加载 
systemctl daemon-reload

#开机启动
systemctl enable node_exporter.service

#启动
systemctl start node_exporter

#查看状态
systemctl status node_exporter

此时,node_exporter启动后已经开始采集指标信息,可以通过地址访问:http://10.47.97.47:9199/metrics

1.2.2mysqld_exporter 安装

mysqld_exporter的作用是用于MySQL数据库数据收集。

  • 下载:
wget https://github.com/prometheus/mysqld_exporter/releases/download/v0.12.1/mysqld_exporter-0.12.1.linux-amd64.tar.gz
  • 安装:
#解压
tar xvf mysqld_exporter-0.12.1.linux-amd64.tar.gz
cp mysqld_exporter /usr/sbin/

#帮助
mysqld_exporter --help

#连接被监控数据库,数据库信息保存在以下的任意一个地方
1: 环境变量
export DATA_SOURCE_NAME='user:[email protected](hostname:3306)/'
./mysqld_exporter <flags>

2: 配置文件
vim ~/.my.cnf

[client]
host=10.27.27.27
port=5381
user=root
password=root
  • 启动:
可以放到systemctl里启动,也可以直接运行:
./mysqld_exporter 
INFO[0000] Starting mysqld_exporter (version=0.12.1, branch=HEAD, revision=48667bf7c3b438b5e93b259f3d17b70a7c9aff96)  source="mysqld_exporter.go:257"
INFO[0000] Build context (go=go1.12.7, [email protected], date=20190729-12:35:58)  source="mysqld_exporter.go:258"
INFO[0000] Enabled scrapers:                             source="mysqld_exporter.go:269"
INFO[0000]  --collect.global_status                      source="mysqld_exporter.go:273"
INFO[0000]  --collect.global_variables                   source="mysqld_exporter.go:273"
INFO[0000]  --collect.slave_status                       source="mysqld_exporter.go:273"
INFO[0000]  --collect.info_schema.innodb_cmp             source="mysqld_exporter.go:273"
INFO[0000]  --collect.info_schema.innodb_cmpmem          source="mysqld_exporter.go:273"
INFO[0000]  --collect.info_schema.query_response_time    source="mysqld_exporter.go:273"
INFO[0000] Listening on :9104                            source="mysqld_exporter.go:283"

其他的exporter可以见官网

1.3可视化监控

上面已经安装部署好了Prometheus、Grafana和Exporter,现在需要把这3者联系起来进行数据展示。如已经安装了node_exporter,需要把node_exporter采集的信息配置到Prometheus上,即修改Prometheus配置文件。

在scrape_configs选项组下面添加:

  - job_name: 'node_exporter'
    scrape_interval: 1s
    static_configs:
    - targets: ['localhost:9199']

重启Prometheus:

systemctl restart prometheus

此时可以在Prometheus上进行出图了: 通过相关的PromSQL得到各种数据指标,如node_load5。Prometheus上面比较适合做一些调试,不适合看监控指标,需要把结果放到Grafana上进行展示。

在Grafana上http://10.47.97.47:3333进行配置数据源。把Prometheushttp://10.47.97.47:9099做为数据源添加进去。如:

根据实际情况设置好各个值,保存完成。 然后去官网找个模板导入,比如导入的ID是8919:

完成之后,可以看到相关的监控图标了。
现在根据表达式自定义一个图,如定义一个CPU使用率:

1-avg(irate(node_cpu_seconds_total{HOSTNAME=~"$hostname",mode='idle'}[1m])) by (HOSTNAME)
HOSTNAME:node_cpu_seconds_total metrice里的一个label。

$hostname: 在设置里设置的一个变量。最终展示图如:

关于更多的图可以自行定义,关于PromSQL可以见我的前几篇文章————Prometheus学习(七)之Prometheus PromQL说明

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