DICOM（Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine）即医学数字成像和通信
DICOM的档案是由标准化且自由型式的开头再加上一连串的影像数据，单一个DICOM的物件只包含一张影像，但是此影像可能会有多个套图（暂时可以理解为：DICOM就是一整套资料，从不同角度可以解阅读出不同的内容），这是为了能储存动态影像以及其他复图形式的资料，影像资料可以经压缩用在其他的格式上，包括了JPEG, JPEG Lossless, JPEG 2000, LZW and Run-length encoding (RLE)。
What is DICOM, PACS, and Workstation?
What is DICOM?
We will take them one at a time – So first of all, what is DICOM? DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) is an international standard protocol for all medical data exchanges. It also defines the file format, which is mostly either a DCM or DCM30 (DCM3.0) file extension. DICOM has been implemented in almost every medical imaging modality like MRI, CT, X-ray, Ultrasound, Camera etc. Hereby, DICOM ensures that all the medical equipment installed in clinics, medical imaging centers, and hospitals will work together and distribute the medical images correctly.
What is PACS?
PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) is normally composed of four basic elements:
Medical imaging equipment like MRI, CT, X-ray, Ultrasound, etc.
A secure network for exchange and distribution of patient examination data.
DICOM workstations or mobile devices for viewing, re-processing, interpreting images.
Archives and printers for storage and retrieval of images and related documentation and reports.
PACS is a kind of the integration of all above resources in a healthcare organization to capture, store, view, and share the medical images internally or externally. And this makes it possible for remote diagnostic and interpretation of the images.
What is a Workstation
A workstation works as an option for most medical imaging equipment, and it functions as follows:
It is independent from the main modality console hereby allowing the patients to keep flowing in for examinations.
Re-processing of the DICOM RAW DATA acquired from different modalities, by accessing the advanced processing functions or options.
Allow remote diagnostic and intensive interpretation of acquired images.
The modalities where workstations are often used are CT and mammography scanners. There might be more than one workstations for any modalities with large volumes of patients, such as CT.
Each OEM uses one or several types of workstations according to the modality. For instance: GE uses ADW, Philips uses Brilliance or Eleva, Siemens uses Leonardo or Terracon, and Toshiba uses Vitrea. Mammography requires a dedicated workstation with two pcs 5MP monitors for accurate diagnosis.